Bedwetting Depression
Both depression and anxiety have been suggested to co-occur in people who suffer from incontinence. Several researchers have found a link between incontinence and depression. It is unclear whether incontinence causes depression or whether depression causes incontinence. However, there is evidence with regards to their relationship.

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Bandura (1977a) proposed that depression occurs when the self-efficacy and outcome expectancy is low. There is thought to be a reciprocal relationship between self-efficacy, performance and emotional state. Depression is a mood disorder described as ranging from mild sadness to overwhelming despair. It is characterized by feelings of sadness, emptiness, dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, inactivity, and futility.

Depression can be triggered by personal perception of cognition, negative events, and physiological states. Depression is when you hear a perceived inefficiency in monitoring the valued results. This perception gives an outcome to the activities you choose to do and the effort and persistence that one is willing to invest.

Self-evaluation of the results has been depreciated by those with low self-efficacy, because success is based on high performance standards. When the results are greatly appreciated, depression is likely to ensue when the expected result is high and the expected return is low.

Self-efficacy and quality of life

Women with incontinence are also more likely to verbalize poorer quality of life. The effect of self-efficacy on quality of life was evaluated in several studies of health-related behaviors. Self-efficacy and quality of life are positively correlated, while depression and self-efficacy is negatively correlated. Options, objectives, effort and persistence of an individual can be influenced by various self-efficacies. The interventions that are adapted to enhance self-efficacy can improve depression and quality of life.

Bedwetting Treatment

Managing incontinence can be done pharmacologically, surgically or behaviorally in nature. The first line of intervention is recommended to be less invasive in nature, like during the exercises of the pelvic muscles. Pharmacological agents can also be used in combination with pelvic muscle exercises to encourage the return of normal bladder movement.

Treatment of UTI is based on a thorough evaluation to confirm the presence of UI, its type, the identification of the contributing factors, and identification of patients who may require further evaluation before any intervention therapy. The information obtained during the evaluation is also crucial in making appropriate treatment for the user interface.

Treatment and interventions for UI include medications, mechanical devices, surgery and behavior modification. Several medications have proved beneficial for the UI, but the risk-benefit ratio is still blurry. The estrogen replacement therapy may also be useful for the UI and has been used in women with estrogen deficiency to reduce the urgency and frequency of incontinence and in combination with adrenergic agonists in the treatment of stress UI. Side effects of pharmacological agents used, the UI features, and the patient and physician preference must be weighed in the decision to use drugs as an intervention.

The intervention was effective when those interventions for pelvic prolapse, the bladder neck, urethral obstruction fail. Surgery may also be indicated in some cases where urinary incontinence does not respond to behavioral and pharmacological interventions.

However, the long-term results of surgery for UI remain under investigation. Mechanical devices such as urethral plugs, weighted vaginal cones and pessarys have proven effective in certain situations. Behavioral interventions have also demonstrated success as a treatment for stress and urge incontinence, although the long-term effects of these therapies need more studies.

Theoretical models

There are few theoretical models that have been developed to organize data and research findings related to incontinence research. Because the UI has an impact to the social, physiological and psychological needs, models should be used holistically.

One model has been described as self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is described as the personal opinion made on the ability to execute courses of action in a particular set of circumstances. Social Cognitive Theory was the basis from which the theory of self-efficacy was colleced. The theory of self-efficacy, proposed that the results are determined by their actions.

Measuring self-efficacy to perform pelvic muscle exercises as an intervention in the behavior of UI can provide important information on motivation and belief in the effectiveness of interventions required. Measuring self-efficacy can also provide a basis for better understanding of the relationship between the results of self-efficacy and success.

The Broome Pelvic Muscle Self-efficacy scale was developed using Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy and has proven to be beneficial in predicting the success of behavioral interventions for incontinence in women. Scale Test in men with post-prostatectomy incontinence is ongoing. To date there are no preliminary data describing the relationship between self-efficacy and success of rehabilitation for post-prostatectomy incontinence.