It is factual that countless individuals are experiencing enuresis which is why so many people are trying to determine what causes bedwetting. Mentioned below are summaries regarding bedwetting known causes and risk factors. Take note that enuretic patients often may have one or more causes of the items listed below.

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The most prevalent triggering agents

Most cases of enuresis belong in the primary nocturnal enuresis type, which has two most common cases:

• Delay in the neurological development

This is the most prevalent cause of urinary incontinence. Most children who suffer from bedwetting simply delay the development of the ability to stay dry and have no other developmental issues. Studies suggest that enuresis may be due to a nervous system that is slow to process the fullness feeling of the bladder.

• Genetics

Bedwetting comprises a strong genetic factor. Children whose parents did not suffer from enuresis have a 15% incidence of this disorder. When one or both parents acquired the condition, the rates increment to 44% and 77%. Genetic research shows that this disorder is associated with genes on chromosomes 12q and 13q.

These first two are the most common factors of nocturnal enuresis, but the current medical technology provides no easy test for one reason or another. There is no evidence to show that this disorder is a developmental delay, and genetic testing provides small or no benefit at all.

As a result, physicians work to rule out other causative agents. The following causes are less common, but are easier to detect and can be treated more clearly:

• Never-ending alcohol consumption: Alcohol increases the person’s urine output.

• Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Children suffering from ADHD are 2.7 times more likely to have problems with bedwetting.

• Caffeine: Caffeine is considered to be a diuretic, hence, it can also increase urine output

• Constipation: Chronic constipation can cause this disorder. When the bowel is full, it can put pressure on the bladder.

• Infection or any kinds of disorder: Infections and diseases are more closely related secondary nocturnal enuresis and daytime wetting. Less than 5% of all cases of enuresis are caused by disease or infection and the most common of which is a urinary tract infection.

• Severe neurological abnormalities: Patients with mental disabilities have a higher rate of bedwetting problems. A study of children with ages seven years old has shown that children and the mentally disabled had a rate of wetting the bed almost three times higher than the non-disabled (26.6% versus 9.5%, respectively).

• Physical health anomalies: Less than 10% of individuals suffering from bedwetting have urinary tract abnormalities, such as having a bladder that is smaller than the normal size. The current data is favourable with increased bladder tone in some bedwetters, which leads to a reduction in functional bladder capacity.

• Psychology: Psychological problems such as death of a loved one and sexual abuse can be causes of secondary nocturnal enuresis (a return to bedwetting), but are rarely causes of primary nocturnal enuresis. Bedwetting can also be a symptom of a disease called PANDAS which is considered to be a pediatric neuropsychological disease. When enuresis is triggered by a psychological or neuropsychological disorder, bedwetting is considered to be a symptom of the disease. Bedwetting may have a psychological diagnosis code but is not considered a psychological case itself.

• Sleep Apnea: Sleep apnea caused by the obstruction of the upper airway has been associated with bedwetting. Tonsils with large sizes and snoring are potential manifestations of sleep apnea.

• Stress: Stress is a cause of primary nocturnal enuresis, but it is also well-established as the cause of secondary nocturnal enuresis or those experiencing recurrent bedwetting. Researchers studying kids who have yet to stay dry detected no relation to social background, life stresses, family constellations, or the number of residences. On the other hand, stress is the cause of people returning to their bedwetting episodes. The researchers found that moving to a new address, parental problems or divorce, the arrival of a new baby, or losing a loved one can cause insecurity, thus, contributing to the return of bed wetting.